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Monday, August 23, 2010

Equipotential Bonding and the NEC/2008

Equipotential Bonding
and the NEC/2008
In the National Electrical Code (NEC), the purpose of
the section on pool bonding has remained consistent:
to reduce or eliminate voltage gradients in pool areas.
That said, the change in language in the NEC/2005
caused some confusion regarding Section 680.26,
"Equipotential Bonding," when the word “Equipotential”
was added to the title (which had been "Bonding") and
requirements were added to the code. An article in the
Summer/Fall 2007 Construction Code Communicator
attempted to clarify the equipotential bonding
requirements of NEC/2005. This article attempts to
clarify the equipotential bonding requirements of the
NEC/2008. This appears to be particularly confusing
because of the way that the sections were subdivided.
1. Pool Shells, NEC/2008 Article 680.26(B)(1) –
Conductive pool shells consist of poured concrete,
pneumatically applied or sprayed concrete, or concrete
block with painted or plastered coating materials. Nonconductive
pool shells include vinyl liners and
fiberglass composite materials.
(a) – Typically, structural reinforcing steel is
used in the conductive pool shells listed above. To be
considered bonded, unencapsulated structural
reinforcing steel is permitted to be secured together by
steel tie wires.
(b) – When the pool reinforcing steel is
encapsulated in a nonconductive material (coated
rebar), then the bonding requirements, which are
summarized in 1a above, no longer apply; however, a
copper conductor grid must be installed within or under
the pool and no more than 6 inches from the outer
contour of the pool shell. The grid must be constructed
of at least a #8 AWG bare solid copper conductor
bonded to each other at all crossing points, and
arranged in a 12 inch by 12 inch (12" X 12") grid with a
tolerance of 4 inches.
2. Perimeter Surfaces, NEC/2008 Article
680.26(B)(2) – The NEC/2008 requires that ANY
surface (e.g. soil, grass, concrete, pavers, etc.) around
the pool or outdoor spa/hot tub must have
equipotential bonding.
(a) – Unencapsulated structural reinforcing
steel (summarized in 1a above) installed in a perimeter
surface that extends three (3) feet from the pool wall is
required to be bonded back to the pool shell at four (4)
uniformly spaced points around the pool.
(b) – When the perimeter surfaces contain reinforcing steel encapsulated in a nonconductive
material (coated rebar), or when the pool is
fiberglass, or vinyl, then a copper conductor that
meets the following must be used: (1) a minimum of
a #8 AWG bare solid copper bonding conductor that
follows the contour of the perimeter surface between
18 and 24 inches from the inside walls of the pool;
(2) the bonding conductor shall be secured within
(i.e. paved surface) or under the perimeter surface 4
to 6 inches below the subgrade (soil); and (3) listed
splicing devices must be used.
3. Pool Water, Article 680.26(C)– This section
requires a minimum conductive surface area of 9
square inches to be installed in contact with the pool
or outdoor spa/hot tub. For example, the metal
handrails of a ladder may be used as long as a
minimum of 9 square inches is submerged in the
pool in contact with the water. If there is no ladder
(or other conductive surface), a component that
meets the requirements of this section may be used.
Please keep in mind that there are other items that are
part of the equipotential bonding system that are not
discussed in this article. As per Section 680.26(B), the
following are also included, as applicable: metallic
components, underwater lighting, metal fittings,
electrical equipment, and metal wiring methods and
An example of typical equipotential bonding setup for
an unencapsulated reinforced steel inground pool is
provided below as a convenient accompaniment to this
article. Please note that the graphic is an illustration
only and is not a substitute for the code text.
If you have any questions, please call the Code
Assistance Unit at (609) 984-7609.
Source: Rob Austin and Suzanne Borek
Code Assistance Unit

LED Lighting Challenges

Despite the obvious bright future of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), this new technology still has many obstacles to overcome
Although light-emitting diode (LED) technology has been around for several decades, it's only recently started to become a player in mainstream commercial lighting applications. As the number of manufacturers offering LED-based luminaires continues to grow, it appears this technology has reached its potential for almost any lighting application.

Cree light sold by Home Depot

Home Depot customers who purchase the home improvement retailer's new LED ceiling light actually are buying a Cree product in disguise. Chuck Swoboda, CEO of Durham-based Cree, announced late Tuesday during a conference call with analysts that Home Depot's new EcoSmart brand downlight -- a recessed ceiling light that's the equivalent of a conventional 65-watt bulb -- is made for the retailer by Cree.
The ceiling light currently is sold for $49.95 on Home Depot's website and will be available in stores nationwide this fall.

Read more:

Friday, March 19, 2010


Full Cutoff, Fully Shielded LED Wallpack

High Output LED Light Engine

Maintains 70% of its initial lumens at 50,000 hours

Weatherproof high temperature silicone gaskets

Superior Heat Sinking with Die Cast Aluminum Housing and External Fins

Thursday, March 18, 2010

The NJ Board of Public Utilities 2010 NJCEP budget proposal

The NJ Board of Public Utilities has published their proposal to cut $158 Million from the 2010 NJCEP budget. The BPU has developed Straw Poll Proposal for to be discussed at a Hearing that will take place on 3/25/10.

At this hearing, the Board will provide an opportunity for stakeholder input on proposed revisions to the NJ Clean Energy Program (NJCEP) programs and budgets for 2010.

For a copy of the proposal Click Here

Saturday, March 6, 2010

Solar Power Boot Camp - July 6 - 10, 2010

Spend a week with Mike in South Florida to find out all aspects of what you need to know to be ready for the Solar Power Revolution happening in the industry. Whether you are planning on installing Solar products, or simply a maintenance contractor who needs to understand the unique characteristics of Solar Powered homes and commercial buildings, you need to attend this program. Mike will bring in a group of experts to help explain everything from How Solar Power works, to the Business Aspects of how Solar Power will fit into your business for the future. One day will be devoted to the NEC Requirements that govern Solar Installations.

This is a program that you don't want to miss, so reserve your seat today in Mike Holt's 2010 Solar Power Boot Camp!

Course Overview
Frequently Asked Questions

Location: Marriott
11775 Heron Bay Blvd.
Coral Springs, FL 33076
Ask for the Mike Holt special rate of $89.00 when making your reservation.

July 6th - July 10th, 2010

This course has been approved for CEU credits for various states. Please contact our office to see if your state is approved


Product Code: SOLAR10
Price: $975.00

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

The NEC and Commercial Loads

The NEC and Commercial Loads
How to apply demand factors
The electrical load requirements for commercial installations result in a great deal of diversity in usage. In other words, while some types of equipment and electrical loads are in use for extended periods, others are only used occasionally or for short periods of time. In addition, there are often two different types of electrical loads on the same service or feeder that will not be brought into service simultaneously by their very nature, such as heating and air conditioning. For this reason, we apply demand factors when calculating service and feeder loads. Different sets of demand factors apply for different types of electrical loads — and even for different types of commercial buildings.
Get the rest Read more

New Jersey Clobbered

NJ Clobbered by Loss of 181,200 Private-Sector Jobs; Could Take 8 Years to Recover
NJ has lost 181,200 private-sector jobs since the start of the recession two years ago, a 5.3 percent decline, and economists say it could take eight years for the State to recover the jobs that have vanished. Read more.

The Complexity of the U.S. Tax System

The Complexity of the U.S. Tax System

Friday, February 26, 2010

N.J.'s clean-energy advocates fear job losses

Last week, when Gov. Chris Christie froze unspent funds in many agency budgets to cover the state’s $2.2 billion shortfall, he appropriated $158 million from New Jersey’s Clean Energy Fund, the engine behind one of the few bright spots in New Jersey’s economy, the renewable energy industry. Advocates of the Clean Energy Program, which is administered by the Board of Public Utilities, say losing the $158 million could result in lower grant and rebate amounts this year, endangering thousands of jobs and setting back the state’s solar industry, the largest in the country after California.
“If they lower the rebates, projects could be canceled,” said Dolores Phillips, executive director of the Mid-Atlantic Solar Energy Industries Association. “It will undermine our ability to do business.”
In a further blow to the Garden State’s struggling economy, loss of the money would remove as much as $800 million in economic activity, according to the State Senate Environment and Energy Committee, which uses a factor of five in calculating the program’s economic impact.
Christie directed the Treasury Department earlier this month to freeze $158 million of the program’s funds, saying the money had not been committed to projects and was just sitting in the account. He reiterated that position Thursday during a meeting with business leaders in Burlington County.   read more